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The Netherlands, one of the larger economies in the European Union, plays an important role as a European transportation hub, with a consistently high trade surplus, stable industrial relations, and low unemployment. Industry focuses on food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs accounts for a small share of the labor force but provides large surpluses for food processing and underpins the country’s status as the world’s second-largest agricultural exporter.

The Netherlands is part of the euro zone, and as such, its monetary policy is controlled by the European Central Bank. The Dutch financial sector is highly concentrated, with four commercial banks possessing over 80% of banking assets and is four times the size of Dutch GDP. The government has implemented significant austerity measures to improve public finances and has instituted broad structural reforms in key policy areas, including the labor market, the housing sector, the energy market, and the pension system. 


Despite high inflation in recent years, the Dutch economy continues to expand. Consumer spending has remained high, with consumption growth reaching 6.5% in 2022 due to employment growth, wage growth, and government intervention support purchasing power. The Dutch labour market remains tight, with vacancies far exceeding unemployment and labour shortages increasing. Declining energy prices are expected to bring down inflation. 

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